Is adoption permissible in Islam?
1. It’s encouraged to adopt children in order to provide kafaalat/guardianship. It is not allowed to adopt and give him/her your name as preservation of lineage is a highly stressed upon objective in the Islamic law.
2. Adoptees should be told how his care takers are related to them.
3. The adopted boy is considered a non-mahram for the adoptive mother. Once he reaches maturity it is obligatory for both to follow the rules of hijab. Similarly, the adopted girl is considered a non-mahram for the adoptive father. Once she reaches maturity it is obligatory for both to follow the rules of hijab.
4. Obviously with adoption of non related children, there are times when adoptive parents and adoptee face emotional burden/discomfort when each has to follow the rules of hijab once the
adoptee reaches maturity which is not practical in many households and thereby leading to unintentional sinning.
5. If a family wants to adopt a child, a good solution to avoid the emotional burden of hijab after maturity, is to adopt the niece of the husband who is a mahram for both adoptive parents and to
adopt the nephew of the wife who is a mahram both adoptive parents.
6. On can take the advantage of the fact that if the adopted child is breast fed by the adoptive mother the adoptive parents become his/her mahram.